Biblical Critiques of Christianity—Selected Bibliography and Biographical Notes

A Response to Norman Geisler and Ron Rhodes’ Defense of the “Open Letter” and Critique of the Christian Research Journal’s Reassessment of the Local Churches

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Please note the diversity of sources, affiliations, and theological leanings represented in this bibliography. This raises the question of why Witness Lee and the local churches were singled out as the target of attack by Norman Geisler and Ron Rhodes. This list is by no means exhaustive. However, the teachings of those listed here form the heritage of most mainstream Protestant traditions.

Bibliography on the parable of the mustard seed

Chafer, Lewis Sperry, Systematic Theology, Volume V: Christology. (Dallas, TX: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948), 352.

Darby, John Nelson, “Lectures on the Second Coming of Christ,” The Collected Writings of J. N. Darby, Volume 11, Prophetic No. 4, ed. by William Kelly (Winschoten, Netherlands: H. L. Heijkoop, 1972), 283.

Darby, John Nelson, Synopsis of the Books of the Bible, Volume III: Matthew—John (Lancing, England: Kingston Bible Trust, 1965), 72.

Govett, Robert, “The Parable of the Mustard Seed Explained,” in Govett on the Parables (Miami Springs, FL: Schoettle Publishing, 1989).

Lang, G. H., Pictures and Parables: Studies in the Parabolic Teaching of Holy Scripture (Miami Springs, FL: Conley & Schoettle, 1985), 87-92.

Lockyer, Herbert, All the Parables of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1963), 185-189.

Morgan, G. Campbell, The Parables and Metaphors of Our Lord (New York: Revell, 1943), 54-59.

Morgan, G. Campbell, The Parables of the Kingdom (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1907), 81-93.

Pink, A. W., “The Parable of the Mustard Seed,” from The Prophetic Parables of Matthew 13, http://www.pbministries.org/books/pink/Parables/parables_03.htm.

Pink, A.W., The Redeemer’s Return (Swengel, PA: Bible Truth Depot, 1918), 136-137.

Ross, J. J., The Kingdom in Mystery (New York: Revell, 1920), 99-132.

Stedman, Ray, “The Case of the Ambitious Seed,” http://www.raystedman.org/new-testament/matthew/the-case-of-the-ambitious-seed.

Vine, W. E., Expository Dictionary of the New Testament (McLean, VA: MacDonald Publishing, 1985), 777.

Walvoord, John F., Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1974), 101-102.

Bibliography on the parable of the woman, the leaven, and the fine flour:

Chafer, Lewis Sperry, Systematic Theology, Volume V: Christology. (Dallas, TX: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948), 352-353.

Darby, John Nelson, Synopsis of the Books of the Bible, Volume III: Matthew—John (Lancing, England: Kingston Bible Trust, 1965), 72-73.

Govett, Robert, “The Parable of the Leaven Explained,” 3rd edition, in Govett on the Parables (Miami Springs, FL: Schoettle Publishing, 1989).

Lang, G. H., Pictures and Parables (Miami Springs, FL: Conley & Schoettle, 1985), 93-109.

Lockyer, Herbert, All the Parables of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1963), 190-197.

Morgan, G. Campbell, The Parables and Metaphors of Our Lord (Old Tappan, NJ: Revell, 1943), 59-65.

Morgan, G. Campbell, The Parables of the Kingdom (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1907), 97-110.

Pink, A. W., “The Parable of the Leaven,” from The Prophetic Parables of Matthew 13, http://www.pbministries.org/books/pink/Parables/parables_04.htm.

Pink, A.W., The Redeemer’s Return (Swengel, PA: Bible Truth Depot, 1918), 139-140.

Ross, J. J., The Kingdom in Mystery (New York: Revell, 1920), 135-171.

Scofield, C. I., The Scofield Reference Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 1909, 1945), 1016.

Strauss, Lehmann, The Book of the Revelation (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1964), 64-68.

Vine, W. E., Expository Dictionary of the New Testament (McLean, VA: MacDonald Publishing, 1985), 667-668.

Walvoord, John F., Matthew: Thy Kingdom Come (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1974), 102-105.

Bibliography on the prophetic identities of Thyatira and Jezebel

Barnhouse, Donald Grey, Revelation: God’s Last Word. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1971, 1982), 57-64.

Criswell, W. A., Expository Sermons on Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1962), 144-147.

Darby, John Nelson, Synopsis of the Books of the Bible, Volume V: Colossians—The Revelation (Kingston-on-Thames: Stow Hill Bible and Tract Depot, 1965), 382.

Gaebelein, Arno C., The Revelation: An Analysis and Exposition of the Last Book of the Bible (New York: Loizeaux Brothers, 1915), 38-39.

Gill, John, Exposition of the Entire Bible,originally published in 1748, available online at: http://www.ewordtoday.com/comments/revelation/gill/revelation2.htm.

Kelly, William, Lectures Introductory to the Study of The Acts, the Catholic Epistles, and the Revelation (Sunbury, PA: Believers Bookshelf, 1869, 1970), 423-424.

Newell, William R., The Book of the Revelation (Chicago: Moody Press, 1935, 1981), 53-61.

Poole, Matthew, A Commentary on the Holy Bible (McLean, VA: MacDonald Publishing, 1985), 955-956.

Scofield, C. I., The Scofield Reference Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 1909, 1945), 1332.

Seiss, Joseph A., The Apocalypse: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1987), 83.

Strauss, Lehmann, The Book of the Revelation (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1964), 64-68.

Talbot, Louis, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946), 50-53.

Bibliography on the prophetic identity of Babylon the Great

Alford, Henry, Alford’s Greek Testament: An Exegetical and Critical Commentary, Volume 4, Part 2—James to Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Guardian Press, 1976), 705.

Barnes, Albert, Barnes’ Notes on the New Testament: Revelation (Grand Rapids: BakerBooks, 1847, 2005), 381, 384-385.

Barnhouse, Donald Grey, Revelation: God’s Last Word. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1971, 1982), 319-325.

Carroll, B. H., An Interpretation of the English Bible: Revelation (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1948), 192, 198.

Chafer, Lewis Sperry, Systematic Theology, Volume VII: Doctrinal Summarization. (Dallas, TX: Dallas Seminary Press, 1948), 31.

Clarke, Adam, The Adam Clarke Commentary, http://www.studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=re&chapter=017.

Coates, C. A., An Outline of the Revelation (Kingston-on-Thames, Stow Hill Bible and Tract Depot, n.d.), 179-187.

Coffman, James Burton, Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament, http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/view.cgi?bk=65&ch=17.

Criswell, W.A., Expository Sermons on Revelation: Volume 4—Revelation 11 through 17 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1962, 1980), 180-189.

Darby, John Nelson, Synopsis of the Books of the Bible, Volume V: Colossians—The Revelation (Kingston-on-Thames: Stow Hill Bible and Tract Depot, 1965), 412-413.

Gaebelein, Arno C., The Revelation: An Analysis and Exposition of the Last Book of the Bible (New York: Loizeaux Brothers, 1915), 97-103.

Gill, John, Exposition of the Entire Bible, http://www.ewordtoday.com/comments/revelation/gill/revelation17.htm.

Govett, Robert, “The Parable of the Leaven Explained,” 3rd edition, in Govett on the Parables (Miami Springs, FL: Schoettle Publishing, 1989), 15-17.

Govett, Robert, Govett on Revelation, Volume II:4 (Miami Springs, FL: Conley & Schoettle, 1981), 25-51.

Hodge, Charles, Systematic Theology, Vol. III(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979), 825-836.

Ironside H.A., Lectures on the Revelation (Neptune: Loizeaux Brothers, 1920, 1973), 55-57, 299-317.

Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, Bible Commentary, Volume 3: Matthew—Revelation (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 2002), 709.

Kelly, William, Lectures Introductory to the Study of The Acts, the Catholic Epistles, and the Revelation (Sunbury, PA: Believers Bookshelf, 1869, 1970), 524-531.

Lang, G. H., The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Miami Springs, FL: Conley & Schoettle, 1985), 277-285.

Lange, John Peter, Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1960), 304-309.

Larkin, Clarence, The Book of Revelation (Philadelphia, PA: Clarence Larkin Estate, 1919), 150-153.

Miller, Andrew, Miller’s Church History (London-Glascow: Pickering & Inglis, 1977), 422-425.

Newell, William R., The Book of the Revelation (Chicago: Moody Press, 1935, 1981), 263-280.

Pember, G. H., The Great Prophecies of the Centuries Concerning the Church (Miami Springs: Conley & Schoettle Publishing Co., Inc., 1909, 1984), 360.

Poole, Matthew, A Commentary on the Holy Bible, Volume III: Matthew-Revelation (McLean, VA: MacDonald Publishing, 1985), 994-995.

Ross, J. J., The Kingdom in Mystery (New York: Revell, 1920), 162-171.

Scofield, C. I., The Scofield Reference Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 1909, 1945), 909, 1346-1347.

Spurgeon, Charles H., Spurgeon’s Devotional Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1964, 1975), 768-771.

Strauss, Lehmann, The Book of the Revelation (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux Brothers, 1964), 67-68, 291-299.

Talbot, Louis, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946), 199-218.

Unger, Merrill F., Unger’s Bible Dictionary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1957, 1982), 116.

Walvoord, John F., The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Chicago: Moody Press, 1966), 243-249.

Wesley, John, Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible – Revelation 17, http://biblehub.com/commentaries/wes/revelation/17.htm.

Wilson, Walter Lewis, Wilson’s Dictionary of Bible Types (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957, 1979), 241.

Biographical Notes on Sources Cited

Alford, Henry (1810-1871) –  Became vicar of Wymeswold, Leicestershire, 1835, minister of Quebec Chapel, Marylebone, London, in 1853, and dean of Canterbury in 1857; best known for his Greek Testament (4 vol., London, 1849-61 and The New Testament for English Readers (4 vol., 1868).

Barnes, Albert (1798-1870) – Graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary; pastor of First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia for 37 years; his commentaries on the New Testament have sold over two million copies.

Barnhouse, Donald Grey (1895-1960) – Pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, PA beginning 1927; broadcast "The Bible Study Hour"; founded Eternity magazine in 1931 and acted as editor-in-chief; mentor of Walter Martin.

Brown, David (1803-1897) – Minister in the Free Church of Scotland; professor of apologetics, church history, and exegesis of the Gospels and later principal at the Free Church College, Aberdeen, Scotland; director of National Bible Society of Scotland; co-founder of the Evangelical Alliance; collaborated with Robert Jamieson and A. R. Fausset on a Commentary on the Old and New Testaments.

Carroll, B. H. (1843-1914) – Founder and first president of Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary; authored a seventeen-volume commentary entitled An Interpretation of the English Bible; president of the board of trustees of Baylor University for over twenty years; founding member of the Baptist General Convention of Texas.

Chafer, Lewis Sperry (1871-1952) – Theologian and author; founder, first president, and Professor of Systematic Theology, Dallas Theological Seminary; pastor of First Congregational Church of Dallas; aided C. I. Scofield in establishment of Philadelphia School of the Bible; general secretary of the Central American Mission.

Clarke, Adam (1760 or 1762-1832) – British Methodist theologian and Biblical scholar; over a span of 40 years wrote a commentary on the Bible that became a basic reference work for Methodist theology.

Coates, C. A. (1862-1945) – Leader and author among the Plymouth Brethren; his expositions on the Song of Songs and on the compound ointment in Exodus 30 are particularly significant.

Coffman, James Burton (1905-2006) – Minister of Central Church of Christ, Houston, TX, and later Manhattan Church of Christ, New York City; chaplain in the U.S. armed forces; wrote a 37-volume verse-by-verse commentary on the Old and New Testament.

Criswell, W. A. (1909-2002) – Pastor of First Baptist Church in Dallas for over 50 years starting in 1944; founder of Criswell College, First Baptist Academy, and KCBI Radio.

Darby, John Nelson (1800-1882) – Influential teacher among the Plymouth Brethren; considered the “father” of modern dispensationalism; wrote a five volume Synopsis of the Bible outlining the major themes in each book; translated or collaborated in translation of the Bible into English, German, French, and Dutch.

Fausset, A. R. (1821-1910) – Irish rector and chaplain; belonged to the Evangelical school of the Church of England; edited the English translation of Bengel’s five-volume Gnomon Novi Testamenti, wrote the second and fourth volumes of The Critical and Explanatory Pocket Bible, and collaborated with Robert Jamieson and David Brown on a multi-volume Commentary on the Old and New Testaments.

Gaebelein, Arno C. (1861-1945) – Methodist minister and author; editor of periodical Our Hope, which subsequently merged with Eternity magazine; assisted C. I. Scofield with interpretations of prophecies in Scofield Reference Bible.

Gill, John (1697-1771) – Pastored the Strict Baptist church at Goat Yard Chapel, Horsleydown, Southwark, England for over 50 years; wrote a nine volume Exposition of the Entire Bible; considered a staunch Calvinist.

Govett, Robert (1813-1901) – British Bible teacher and pastor of Surrey Chapel, Norwich, Norfolk, England; Govett is particularly credited for his interpretations of the parables and types in the Bible and for his study of the coming reign of Christ, including the judgment seat of Christ and dispensational reward or discipline.

Hodge, Charles (1797-1878) – Principal of Princeton Theological Seminary from 1851-1878; author of three-volume Systematic Theology, considered a classic of Calvinist theology.

Ironside, H. A. (1876-1951) – Pastor of Moody Church in Chicago from 1929-1948; traveled widely to preach; frequently spoke at Dallas Theological Seminary from 1925 to 1943; author of numerous expositions.

Jamieson, Robert (1802-1880) – Scottish minister and co-author of a multi-volume Commentary on the Old and New Testaments with A. R. Fausset and David Brown.

Kelly, William (1821-1906) – Prolific writer among the Plymouth Brethren; edited the Collected Writings of John Nelson Darby, with whom he was a long-time co-worker.

Lang, G. H. (1874-1958) – Bible teacher and scholar, prolific author associated with the Plymouth Brethren movement; edited writings of G. H. Pember; traveled widely to minister the Word.

Lange, John Peter (1802-1884) – German Protestant theologian; professor of dogmatics at Bonn; professor of  theology at Zurich; contributed commentaries on ten books of the Bible, including Matthew and Revelation, to Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk, which was subsequently translated and enlarged under the general editorship of Philip Schaff.

Larkin, Clarence (1850-1924) – American Baptist pastor, Bible teacher, and author; his most famous book is Dispensational Truth (or God’s Plan and Purpose in the Ages).
Lockyer, Herbert (1886-1984) – Pastor, Bible teacher, and author; leader in the Keswick movement; authored a well-known 21-volume All Bible study series, including All the Parables in the Bible.

Miller, Andrew (1810-1883) – Voluntary pastor of a Baptist Church in William Street, London; wrote the introduction to C. H. Mackintosh’s Notes on the Penteteuch, the publishing of which he also financed; wrote Miller’s Church History.

Morgan, G. Campbell (1863-1945) – Congregational minister; renowned preacher and Bible expositor; director of Northfield Bible Conference; pastor of Westminster Chapel in London; contributor to The Fundamentals.

Newell, William R. (1868-1956) – Pastored of Bethesda Congregational Church in Chicago; became the first assistant superintendent of Moody Bible Institute under R.A. Torrey in 1895; well-known for commentaries on Romans, Hebrews, and Revelation.

Pember, G. H. (1837-1910) – English Bible and classics scholar associated with the Plymouth Brethren; known for books on prophecy and for Earth’s Earliest Ages, which articulates the “gap” theory of Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.

Pink, A. W. (1886-1952) – English evangelist and author; studied briefly at Moody Bible Institute; pastored congregations in Australia and in various parts of the United States; his writings were posthumously republished by Banner of Truth Trust, Baker Book House, Moody Press, and Truth for Today, among others.

Poole, Matthew (1624-1679) – English Nonconformist theologian and apologist; rector of St. Michael le Querne, London from 1649-1662; fled England under threat of assassination because of a tract he wrote entitled “Nullity of the Romish Faith”; wrote Synopsis criticorum biblicorum (5 vols fol., 1669-1676) and A Commentary on the Holy Bible (originally published as Annotations upon the Holy Bible); his writings were valued by Charles Spurgeon and Jonathan Edwards, among others.

Ross, J. J. – Pastor of Second Baptist Church in Chicago and Lecturer in Homiletics and the English Bible in the Northern Baptist Theological Seminary in Chicago.

Scofield, C. I. (1843-1921) –Minister at First Congregational Church in Dallas, TX; secretary of American Home Missionary Society of Texas and Louisiana; co-founder of Lake Charles College, Lake Charles, Louisiana; founder of Central American Mission based on fellowship with life-long friend Hudson Taylor; pastored Trinitarian Congregational Church of East Northfield, Massachusetts; oversaw Moody’s Northfield Bible Training School; wrote the notes for the Scofield Reference Bible, a highly influential publication espousing dispensationalist views; became a Southern Presbyterian; supervised the New York Night School of the Bible; founded Philadelphia School of the Bible (now Philadelphia Biblical University) in Philadelphia, PA.

Seiss, Joseph A. (1823-1904) – Evangelical Lutheran minister and prolific author of biblical expositions; pastored congregations in Baltimore and Philadelphia; president of the board of directors, Theological Seminary at Philadelphia.

Spurgeon, Charles H. (1834-1892) – Baptist preacher; built Metropolitan Tabernacle; founded Pastors’ College; established Stockwell orphanage; well-known for collections of his sermons and his opposition to higher criticism of the Bible.

Stedman, Ray (1917-1992) – Graduate of Dallas Theological Seminary; traveled with H.A. Ironside; served in leadership positions at Peninsula Bible Church in Palo Alto, CA for 40 years.

Strauss, Lehman (1911-1997) – Bible teacher and author; taught on the weekly national radio broadcast, "Bible Study Time" (Biola College’s radio ministry, “The Biola Hour”); taught Old Testament History at Philadelphia Bible Institute; pastored Calvary Baptist Church, Bristol, PA, and Highland Park Baptist Church in Highland Park, MI, before devoting himself to speaking in Bible conferences.

Talbot, Louis (1889-1976) – Pastored The Church of the Open Door; President of Bible Institute of Los Angeles (now Biola College); Founded Talbot Theological Seminary (now Talbot School of Theology); founded The Biola Hour national radio broadcast.

Unger, Merrill F. (1909-1980) – After serving as pastor of several churches, he became a professor of Old Testament at Dallas Theological Seminary; author of over forty books, including many reference works.

Vine, W. E. (1873-1949) – Classical scholar, expositor and theologian; author of the Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words; editor of Echoes of Service, a monthly magazine of reports from missionaries around the world.

Walvoord, John F. (1910-2002) – Theologian, pastor and author; professor of systematic theology and president of Dallas Theological Seminary; editor of Bibliotheca Sacra; his writings focused on theology and eschatology.

Wesley, John  (1703-1791) – Evangelist, preacher and author; founder of Methodism; with his brother Charles Wesley and George Whitefield, he set out to evangelize Great Britain, traveling on horseback and using open-air preaching to reach the masses.

Wilson, Walter Lewis (1881-1969) –American medical doctor and preacher. Started Central Bible Hall (later Central Bible Church) in Kansas City; founded Kansas City Bible Institute (now the Calvary Bible College); pioneered radio ministry.